The healthcare system is growing with an unprecedented phase; this century marks the advent of telemedical and wearable medical, which are designed to protect our health. These smart gadgets notify us when they detect even a minor abnormality in people’s bodies. Wearable oximeter has played an important role in hospitals and other medical institutions.
What is blood oxygen?
Oxygen is a key substance for the human body's metabolism, and it is the first need of the human body's life activities. Oxygen from breathing is converted into oxygen available to the body, called blood oxygen. Blood carries blood oxygen to the whole body to input energy, and the amount of blood oxygen delivered is closely related to the working state of the heart and brain. The stronger the pumping capacity of the heart, the higher the oxygen content of the blood; the stronger the blood transfusion capacity of the coronary arteries of the heart, the higher the concentration of oxygen delivered to the heart, brain and the whole body, and the better the functioning of the vital organs of the body. A balanced amount of oxygen is essential for people’s survival. When the balance in oxygen level in the body gets disturbed, it causes different health concerns.
What are the complications caused by hypoxia?
Respiratory system hypoxia
Increased pulmonary ventilation is the earliest compensatory response of acute hypoxic hypoxia. When PaO2 is lower than 60mmHg (8.0kPa), it can stimulate the peripheral chemoreceptors of the carotid body and aortic arch, reflexively causing deepening and accelerating breathing and increasing pulmonary ventilation. In addition, hypoxia will also damage vascular endothelial cells, increase pulmonary capillary permeability, and lead to pulmonary edema in severe cases.
Want to know How Wearable Pulse Oximeter Helps Hypoxemia?
Nervous system hypoxia
The effect of hypoxia on the central nervous system is related to the speed and degree of hypoxia. When people's oxygen partial pressure drops to 60mmHg, it will lead to inattention and mild loss of intelligence and vision. When the oxygen partial pressure drops below 40-50mmHg, it will cause a series of mental symptoms, such as headache, uneasiness, disorientation and attention disorder, insanity, drowsiness, etc. If the oxygen partial pressure is lower than 30mmHg, it will lead to mental loss or even coma. Suppose the oxygen partial pressure is lower than 20mmHg; it will cause irreversible damage to nerve cells in only a few minutes. Severe hypoxia of the nervous system will cause great harm to people's bodies.
Cardiovascular system hypoxia
The cardiovascular system is sensitive to hypoxia. The compensatory reactions caused by hypoxia are mainly manifested by accelerated heart rate, increased cardiac output, coronary vasodilation, pulmonary hypertension caused by pulmonary arteriole contraction, and blood flow redistribution. When arterial oxygen saturation decreases to 80%, the heart rate will increase by 10%, and the cardiac output increases. If SaO2 decreases to 72%, the heart rate will increase by 30%, and the cardiac output will increase by more than 20%. Suppose people have acute hypoxia, there will be a severe contraction of renal vessels and a significant reduction of blood flow.
The measurement principle of pulse oximeter
The working principle of a pulse oximeter is based on spectrophotometry, in which how much light is absorbed by your blood is measured and gives you accurate readings about your blood oxygen level. Oximeters have saved tens of thousands of people by diagnosing 'silent hypoxia' during the Covid-19. The heart rate and blood oxygen index monitored by oximeters are also important indicators of human health in operation diagnosis and daily life.
Cases analysis: Life-saving case of wearable oximeter
In 2020, in a hospital in Washington, the United States, after tracheal intubation was taken out after general anesthesia, the patient Wang was hypoxic due to increased respiratory secretions. At that time, the situation was urgent as the patient had symptoms of dyspnea. Fortunately, the hospital is equipped with Viatom O2ring. After using O2Ring to monitor the blood oxygen level, the doctor further determined the degree and cause of hypoxia and saved his life by removing airway edema fluid.
Precautions for SpO2 monitoring in different surgeries
There are certain surgery scenarios where the patient's blood oxygen changes during the operation. SpO2 monitoring is necessary during surgeries. Some of the cases in which precautions need to be taken include:
When sucking sputum during surgery
Sputum suction is a common clinical nursing operation and an effective measure to clean up respiratory secretions. For patients who need to suck sputum, a mouthful of sputum is a fatal risk. Therefore, the correctness of the sputum suction operation is not only the key to respiratory care but also the safety of the patient's life. However, the suction operation can cause mechanical damage to the patient's airway mucosa and a decrease in lung volume. Therefore, the timing of suction is very important. While sucking sputum during surgery, nurses can fully grasp the timing and duration of sputum suction through SpO2 monitoring. When the nurse observes that the patient's SpO2 gradually decreases by 2% ~ 3% and there is a sputum sound in the lungs during auscultation, the sucking sputum should begin. When the patient's SpO2 drops to 85%, sputum suction should be suspended.
Patients with tracheal intubation
The other surgery in which a wearable pulse oximeter can play an important role is tracheal intubation. Maintaining hemoglobin oxygen saturation during airway management is very important for patient safety. Desaturation to oxygen saturation below 70% will put patients at risk of arrhythmia, hemodynamic decompensation, hypoxic brain injury, and death. The major challenge for emergency physicians is to quickly intubate the trachea to ensure that the airway is unobstructed without severe hypoxia or aspiration. For patients without pulmonary lesions, if hemoglobin is sufficient, metabolic demand is low, and pulse oxygen saturation reaches 100% when inhaling indoor air, the risk of hypoxia saturation caused by intubation after preoxygenation is low. On the contrary, when patients with sepsis of multilobar pneumonia have developed hypoxemia (oxygen saturation ≤ 90%), despite the administration of high flow 100% oxygen, there will be an immediate risk of hypoxia of important tissues during endotracheal intubation. Most patients undergoing general anesthesia surgery establish endotracheal intubation. SpO2 monitoring can help monitor these problems.
The risk stratification of patients during preoxygenation can be divided into low risk (SpO2 96%-100%), high risk (SpO2 91%-95%), and hypoxia (≤SpO2 90%). In the low-risk stage, a non-rebreathing mask is used during preoxygenation to give maximum oxygen flow. In the high-risk stage, use a non-rebreathing mask or CPAP or a bag valve mask with PEEP during preoxygenation. In the hypoxia phase, CPAP or bag valve mask with PEEP was used during preoxygenation.
Postoperative SpO2 monitoring
Bedside continuous breathing monitoring for postoperative patients is an important content of postoperative monitoring in ICU. According to statistics, the incidence of respiratory dysfunction after surgery is very high (the incidence of pulmonary dysfunction after abdominal surgery is 22%), which is one of the most common complications. Severe gas exchange disorder often occurs after general anesthesia and thoracoabdominal surgery, resulting in hypoxemia (including early and late hypoxemia). Early hypoxemia is mainly caused by anesthesia and residual effects of anesthesia after the operation (mostly within two hours). Patients with acceptable cardiopulmonary function before operation can recover by themselves. However, postoperative hypoxemia requires a two-week recovery time. Therefore, postoperative blood oxygen levels must be continuously monitored to determine the specific causes of hypoxemia. For patients with chronic cardiopulmonary disease and severe anemia, bedside chest radiographs shall be equipped in time when the blood oxygen value drops. In other cases, such as phrenic nerve injury during operation, cardiac insufficiency caused by cardiac surgery, and respiratory center affected by intracranial surgery, the ventilation mode of low tidal volume and accelerating respiratory rate can be adopted and appropriate PEEP can be given to prevent atelectasis.
Many hospitals purchase Viatom oximeter
Viatom blood oximeter has passed CE and FDA certification, adopts high-end intelligent SOC chip, combined with anti-interference filtering technology and anti-jitter technology to accurately measure blood oxygen, pulse rate, and PI values. The measurement data accuracy is comparable to medical-grade.
Facing the huge demand in COVID-19, as the world's leading medical equipment manufacturer and one of the world's pioneers in the innovation of blood oxygen products, Viatom, which belongs to the LEPU Group, produces efficiently under strict quality control guarantees.Viatom has been supplying oximeters to many large hospitals in the USA, Germany and Thailand as an aid to treatment under strict quality control.
In the continuous application feedback, the Thai media also reported on the Viatom oximeter products. In the report, the dean showed the Viatom FS20F fingertip oximeter he chose. And made it clear that Viatom pulse oximeter can be used in hospitals and home care.
Viatom is an excellent oximeter supplier specializing in the production and distribution of medical equipment. Our medical products are specifically recommended by health specialists. We are committed to delivering the best mobile medical equipment and protecting your health better.